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After reading the thesis, I wrote a summary of events concerning the development and implementation of the Rule and Constitutions that is found in the thesis entitled “POST-CONCILIAR RENEWAL OF THE LEGISLATIVE TEXTS FOR THE ORDER OF THE DISCALCED CARMELITE NUNS OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY OF MOUNT CARMEL” 1995 by Sr. Mary Kathleen Kuentsler, P.H.J.C.:



January 7, 1966                   A questionnaire was sent by Carmelite Generalate to the Nuns all over the world to be used collect information for the Friars General chapter next year


May 1967                              The extraordinary General Chapter took place in Rome in two sessions.  The Fathers passed the following proposals for Nuns on this first session:


1.      That Fathers Provincial be delegated to set up their respective regions a committee of Friars to work with the Nuns in their renewal.

2.      That permission be given to Nuns to meet as often as necessary to discuss and formulate the elements of their renewal.


September 1968                  In the second session, Father Michelangelo Batiz, Superior of the Order announced that the SCRIS has negated the right of the of the chapter fathers to help the nuns or deal with their problems of renewal and experimentation


October 15, 1969                 Another questionnaire was sent to the Nuns by Father Michelangelo concerning enclosure and divine office


July 1971                               Based on the 300,000 answers to said questionnaire, a document “Statutes on Enclosure of the Nuns of the Order of the Discalced Carmelites” written by the Generalate in Rome and approved by SCRIS on experimental basis for a period of then years


1971                                       Father Michelangelo developed “Basic Legislation” the first text, 114 pages long but majority of Nuns did not accept this legislation and as a result, it was dropped


1973                                       Father Finian Monahan became the Superior General and he began the process again.


June 2, 1974                        Father Finian issued a letter recommending the following schema for the new legislation of the Discalced Carmelite Nuns:

1.      Rule (of St. Albert )

2.      Primitive Constitutions of O.H.M. St. Teresa with declarations containing theological principles, modifications and additions

3.      Directory-Ceremonial


777 monasteries responded


655 voted YES


34 monasteries favored numbers 1 and 2 but expressed reservation on number 3


14 voted NO


74 monasteries asked that Primitive Constitutions be replaced with Alcala Constitutions, majority of these Carmels were from Spain 48 monasteries and 11 monasteries from Italy


Father Monahan gave two reasons for his preference for Teresas 1657 Constitutions:


1.      the 1567 Constitutions were written by Teresa personally while the Alcala was not

2.      Only 13% of the monasteries world wide observed the Alcala text



March 17, 1977                    As a result, a document “Declaration for the Updating of the “Primitive” Constitutions of the Discalced Nuns of the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount of Carmel in Accordance with the Directives of the Second Vatican Council” was written and a decree was issued on that date.  An accompanying letter from Agostino Mayer, OSB approving said document “ad expirementum.”


                                                From the very beginning, the “Association of St. Teresa” mostly in Spain rejected the “Declaration”, in some cases before they saw it or before it was even published.  Sr. Therese of Jesus, OCD Prioress of Carmel de la Theotokos in Harissa , Lebanon claimed to be the one to set the process of resistance in motion.  She is still the Prioress of the same Carmel right now and we corresponded for sometime regarding books about St. Maravillas.



January 16, 1981                A growing fear of schism within the Order is developing and Cardinal Pironio presented this worry to the Pope. 


1981                                       extension time was given to the Statutes


1982                                       another extension was given


February 1982                     During the evaluation of the “Declarations,” Father General explained in his letter the procedure to be followed by the individual Nuns and each monastery:


                                                “…in conformity with the criterion set down by the Holy Father in his letter on 23rd February… Each and every one, communities and Nuns, have to assume responsibility, they may devolve it upon no-one, within or outside the community, and no one may assume it in the name of another.”


February 11, 1982               An important meeting concerning the problem were attended by the Pope, Cardinal A. Ballestero, Cardinal E. Pironio, (now Cardinal) E. Martinez-Somalo, Archbishop A. Mayer and the Superior General of OCD.


March 6, 1982                      Even though each Nun was to give their own evaluation without outside influences this did not always happen.  The United Carmels sent out a circular letter from La Aldehuela signed by Dolores of Jesus, President of the Association of St. Teresa, to all monasteries of the United Carmels which member monasteries are around 150.  This letter told them what response they should give.


                                                            I wish to tell you what we must do, since it is indispensable that we all do the same thing.  Thus the genuine union we have will be shown.  They tell us from Rome that this is very important.  In the response to Father General… there is no need to analyze the Declarations but only to state briefly and clearly why we do not want them, saying instead that we want: “CONSTITUTIONS OF OUR HOLY MOTHER TERESA OF JESUS OF 1581, ADAPTED TO VATICAN II, WITH THE EXISTING STATUTE ON ENCLOSURE INCLUDED IN THE CONSTITUTIONS, ACCORDING TO THE TEXT WE HOPE YOU HAVE ALREADY RECEIVED.”… it is desirable that this paragraph in capital letters be the same.



July 7, 1982                          As per direction of the Pope, at the end of the experimentation period, Father Philip Sainz de Baranda sent a questionnaire to the Nuns.  The results of the questionnaire and personal letters of the Nuns were given to the commission of ten Discalced Carmelite Friars from various countries were set up with the approval of the Congregation for Religious.


October 1982                        A presentation of new Statutes for the Association of St. Teresa which led the formation of Carmelos Unidos (United Carmels).  This group of Carmels, lead by Mother Maria Josefa of the Heart of Jesus, OCD, Prioress of Cerro de los Angeles Carmel, organized itself around the Association of St. Teresa.


June 16, 1983                      The commission finished their work (see July 7, 1982)



July 11, 1983                        A report was presented to Cardinal E. Pironio, Prefect of the Congregation for Religious.  This document “Analysis and Synthesis of the Replies of the Communities of the Discalced Carmelite Nuns to the Consultation on their Legislation” gave a clear view of the Nuns’ attitude.


                                                616 monasteries answered that said “Declaration” were in accordance with what the Church were asking in terms of their renewal


                                                147 monasteries opposed said document. 


                                                10 monasteries admitted that they never studied the document


                                                60 monasteries admitted that they had not put them into practice even if the Superior General and SCRIS had directed them to do so during the experimental period of 1977-1982.


January 22, 1984                Father General wrote to the Pope asking assistance where he sited he wanted to resolve the problem in a definitive way and he asked the Supreme Pontiff not permit two text of legislation for the Nuns in order to safeguard the unity of the Order.



1984                                       During the first months of the year, Father General consulted with different experts in the Order; they developed the following studies:


                                                Unity of the Order

                                                Consequences of a Separation

                                                The Charism of the Order


March 3, 1984                      These 3 studies and a letter were presented to Cardinal Pironio


May 14, 1984                        Father Superior General met with the new Prefect, Cardinal Jerome Hamer, OP, hoping to hasten the process of promulgating the “Declarations” as the definitive legislation.


June 1984                            The Generalate updated the Declarations to meet the requirement of the new Code of Canon Law and sent them to SCRIS for approval.


September 15, 1984           SCRIS replied in a letter to the Father Superior General, that the congregation does not consider it opportune for the moment to grant what was solicited since the delicate question of the legislation is being studied.


October 15, 1984                 A letter from Cardinal Agostino Casaroli informed Father Baranda that the Supreme Pontiff had decided to intervened personally.  The letter outlined the criteria to be used for future development of the legislation for the Discalced Carmlite Nuns.  Said letter listed the following new normative elements that would make up the future legislation as directed by the Pope:


a.      The legislation of the Discalced Carmelite Nuns will comprise the following parts, all of which will be normative: the primitive Rule (also called the Rule of Saint Adalberto) (Albert), of 1247, observed by the Saint Teresa; the 1581 Constitutions of the Holy Foundress with appropriate adaptations; additional chapters to include those necessary norms not envisioned by the Saint and required by the present general legislation of the Church.

b.      The adaptation mentioned above, intended especially to clarify those secondary points which are no longer relevant to present conditions, could be inserted into the text itself for the constitutions or placed in footnotes.

c.      An “Introduction” should preface the legislative corpus, containing the evangelical and theological principles and the spiritual and ecclesial aims of the Carmelite charism.


The Constitutions of 1581 will be, therefore, the framework for the legislative corpus.


October 27, 1984                 Father Baranda wrote a letter addressed to the Order to accompany Cardinal Casaroli’s letter.  He wrote “Undoubtedly, for the big majority of the Order, Nuns and Friars, the directives of the Holy Father will come as an unexpected surprise.”


United Carmels kept presenting their own preferred adapted text of the 1581 Constitutions over the years, while rejecting all other text prepared by others.  Sister Theres of Jesus, Prioress of Harissa Carmel wrote:


            …. we drew up a sample text, with the help of other Carmels (“United Carmels”), and presented it to the Holy Father, with the signatures of some 150 communities.  We requested, solely for ourselves, the privilege of continuing to live within the Church, according to the Constitutions of our Holy Mother, appropriately adapted.


Portion taken from the letter of Therese of Jesus to Marguerite Marie de Jesus dated February 18, 1991.


October 9, 1985                   The Congregation for Religious organized the plan approved by the Pope based on the framework the Pope himself provided.


November 12, 1984            A commission of 6 Carmelite Friars chosen by Cardinal Hamer, Prefect of SCRIS, began their work on the new legislation.  The commission was chosen according to three criteria:


1.      special theological, historical and juridical competence on the Teresian Carmel

2.      residence in Rome to facilitate the possibility of consulting and meeting with the experts

3.      willingness to work on the text in total responsibility for the directives of the Holy Father and CRIS


Fathers Jesus Castellano and Arnaldo Arnaldo Pignam were responsible for “The Preface”


Fathers Valentino Mecca and Eugenio Gurratxoga Aramburi adapted the “Constitutions of 1581”.


Fathers Pietro Zubicta and Angel Batiz developed the “Added Chapters”


The commission was to examine the materials collected, including the text of the Declaration, develop a first draft of the three points and send it to all the Discalced Carmelite Nuns for their comments and suggestions.  They call it “Draft-Legislation.”


October 15, 1986                 The Congregation for Religious sent the documentation to all Carmels with accompanying letter asking the Nuns to examine as a community the “Plan of Legislation” and to answer four general questions:


1.      Does it seem to you that the project responds to the directions of the Holy Father?

2.      What is your judgment of the First Part?

a.      Does it express the mind of St. Teresa of Jesus and the Tradition of the Order?

b.      Are there lacunae in regard to the essential elements of the spiritual heritage of the Order?

3.      How do you judge the work on the Constitutions of Alcala, keeping in mind the revised Code of Canon Law

4.      Does the Third Part, with the Chapters added, seem to correspond to the Tradition of the Order and the Code of Canon Law?


March 30, 1987                    The deadline for returning the response was extended beyond said date attributing it to the delay of receiving the documents.


June 30, 1987                      Having received the answers from the Nuns, Cardinal Hamer submitted them to the Pope.  This was accompanied by a report of an examination for the fundamental reasons for the answers and a draft of general report.  It was submitted to an expert in statistics, Father Silvano Sarti, SDB.  The data was analyze by the Secretariat of the Faculty for Education of the Salesianum.


April 16, 1988                       The conclusion were handed over with two reports containing the explanation of the relevant date on the four proposed questions to the Nuns.  It is called “Synthesis of the Answer” which showed that 798 monasteries that replied to said questionnaire voted negative toward the proposed “Draft-Legislation.”


April 30, 1988                       The problem of the Discalced Carmelite legislation was again discussed with the Pope.  He entrusted to the “Pleanarium” of the Congregation for Religious the task of developing the process to bring this to a conclusion.


Nov 29 – Dec 2, 1988         The plenary session of 23 cardinals was held and after detailed examination of the issue, The “Plenarium” agreed unanimously on five recommendations:


1.      It is necessary to proceed with a certain urgency

2.      The Legislation will be faithfully conformed to Can 587 (c.f. also the Motu Propio “Ecclesia Sanctae”, II, 14), which distinguishes between fundamental code (Constitutions) and the complementary ones.

3.      All Carmels will have the same fundamental code – a united and organic text – which will include everything essential for living a contemplative life according to the Teresian charism.  This code will bear the name of “Constitutions.”

4.      For the redaction of these Constitutions, the point of departure will be the “Declaration” of 1977, which will be corrected and completed according to the results of the two consultations (1983 and 1986-1987), taking into account the indications of the Fathers of the “Plenarium” and of the competent authorities.

5.      Within the limits of the complementary codes, the various legitimate traditions of Carmel can regulate their religious life according to the particular norms, on condition, however, that the provisions of the Constitutions are safeguarded.  In order to guarantee a greater stability, these norms will be subject to the approval of the Holy See.


December 3, 1988               The recommendation of the “Plenarium” were approved by the Supreme Pontiff.





April 29, 1989                       A letter from Cardinal Hamer gave assurances that entrusting the redaction of the Constitutions by the Supreme Pontiff to the Congregation for Religious was a sufficient guarantee for safeguarding the nature, purpose, spirit and task of the Order.


October 1989                        After several months of working to develop a text based on the new decision of the Pope.  The commission finished the new legislative text.


November 7, 1989               The Prioress of Cerro de los Angeles along with two other Nuns traveled to Rome and had met with the Pope, and also they passed through the Congregation for Religious.


June of 1990                        The decree was prepared and given to the Supreme Pontiff.  Everything seemed in order to finally bring to conclusion the updating of the legislation for the Discalced Carmelite Nuns


December 11, 1990            Father Baranda issued a letter informing the Order that the Supreme Pontiff had again made another decision concerning the minority of group of Nuns in the Order.  He approved the text which Mother Dolores of Jesus, Prioress of the Monastery of St. Joseph, Avila and Mother Maria Josefa of the Heart of Jesus, Prioress of the Monastery of Cerro de lost Angeles, Getafe (Madrid) had presented to him directly in the name of 92 monasteries.  This text, the Rule and Constitutions (1581), followed the guidelines of Cardinal Casaroli’s letter.  The letter assured the rest of the Order that the text being prepared by the Congregation for Religious has not been rejected, but only that its decree of implementation would be postponed.


                                                Enclosed with the announcement of the Father General is the list of 92 Carmels (plus another 5) from 14 different countries who have asked for and received the 1990 Constitutions. 


                                                Spain 58 monasteries

                                                Peru 6 monasteries

                                                France 5 monasteries

                                                USA 5 monasteries

                                                Poland 4 monasteries

                                                Brazil  4 monasteries

                                                Argentina 4 monasteries

                                                Venezuela 3 monasteries

                                                Belgium 2 monasteries

                                                England 2 monasteries

                                                Lebanon 1monastery

                                                Senegal 1 monastery

                                                Holland 1 monastery

                                                Portugal 1 monastery


February 14, 1991               There were reports that some Carmels in Spain and Poland included on the original 92 monasteries had withdrawn due to the change of the Teresian position as regards the Superior General of the Order.


September 17, 1991           The decree for the Constitutions prepared by CRIS was finally issued.  There are now two approved text plus a “compromise legislation”, which is contrary to goal of the “Plenarium”; one unified text for all Nuns.


                                                This “compromise legislation” is a hybrid meaning this third type has the following as its heading: MONASTERIES THAT HAVE CHOSE THE 1990 CONSTUTIONS but have obtained from the Apostolic See the faculty to follow the 1991 Constitutions in all points that refer to the Superior General. These monasteries are:


                                                Italy – San Simone Di Sannicola

                                                Poland – Katowice ,  Lodz , Wloclawek-Michelin


                                                Other monasteries tried to get the same privilege but were refused since the Holy See did not want a third, compromise text for the Order.


(My note: Taiwan Carmels are not included on the list who adopted the Hybrid Text as the thesis was written however, the Holy See probably allowed some 1990 Carmels who desired to remain faithful to the Superior General.  This means they will not follow the article 133 of the 1990 Text and follow the articles of the 1991 Text pertaining to the relationship with the Superior General of the Order)


                                                Along with the decree of the 1991 text, there was also another directive given to the Nuns in which they are to decide which two texts in vigor, 1990 or 1991 they intended to use.  Those who are following the 1990 could simply reaffirm their previous decisions made by the Prioresses.


October 3, 1991                   A letter from Cardinal Hamer accompanied 1991 text.  The differences between the two text were explained.  He quoted from a letter from the Pope issued in October 1, 1991:


                                                                        …both texts, equally approved by the Church, seek to be a faithful interpretation of the Teresian charism.  This remains unaltered, as well as the style of life proposed by the Holy Mother in her Constitutions and other writings.  The differences do not refer, therefore, either to the substance of the Teresian Carmelite contemplative charism, or to the necessary and contant return to the primitive inspiration.  They correspond, rather, to the diverse modalities of interpreting adaptation to the changed conditions of the times,  (cfr. Perfectae Caritatis n. 2) and the formulation of legislation for religious institutes, the approbation of which is the exclusive competence of the Holy See (canons 578 and 587).


                                                Said directive given to the Nuns was that they were to make their choice in the Chapter of the Monastery by an absolute majority of valid votes and their decision must be communicated to the Holy See by the December 25, 1992


December 25, 1992            At this date, all votes are now in.  A final report brought the long struggle to an end. 


                                                Out of 869 monasteries around the world, only 125 monasteries in 19 countries choose the 1990 text.  Spain counted 59 Carmels almost half the entire number (125), the remaining are found in 18 other countries.  In those same 19 countries there were also monasteries have chosen to follow the 1991 text. 


                                                Overall 744 monasteries, out of 869.  A little more than 14 % are using the 1990 Constitutions and 85 are using the 1991 Constitutions.


 This thesis is the basis for the article "The Fractured Face of Carmel" written by Sr. Kate Kuenstler.  

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Please refer to the text with underline to see the differences as regards the relationship of the Nuns with the Superior General of the Order:







133. The Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel constitutes in the Church a spiritual family which belongs equally the Carmelite Fathers and the Discalced Carmelite Nuns.  Between them there ought to exist a unity of spirit and of doctrine, but not necessarily a dependence of government and jurisdiction.


     As regards their juridical condition, our monasteries, preserving spiritual unity with the entire Order, have no other major superior above the Prioress, except the Holy See, nor they are associated with the Discalced Brothers in such wise that the Superior General should have any power over them whatsoever.  Consequently, they are entrusted to the vigilance of the diocesan Bishop according to the norm of law. (Cf. can. 615)


134. These monasteries, erected by a formal decree of the Apostolic See, are of Pontifical Right and depend immediately on the same in regard to internal governance and discipline (Cf. cans. 589, 593, and 609).









The canonical status of the monasteries


199. The Discalced Carmelite Nuns of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel and the Discalced Carmelite Friars together constitute a single religious family in the Church.


200. The Discalced Carmelite Nuns, who are governed by these Constitutions, profess an entirely contemplative life.  They observe papal enclosure in monasteries sui juris which are governed by and subject to a Prioress, who is a major superior, according to the norm of law.

         The Superior General of the Order is the head of this family.  To him pertains, in his service to the nuns, the task of promoting their unity in fidelity to the contemplative-ecclesial ideal begun by St. Teresa of Jesus, and of fostering union among all the monasteries and with the rest of the Order as well as with the Apostolic See, without detriment to the autonomy which universal law and these Constitutions grant to the monasteries.

201.  Since they are of pontifical right, every monastery depends on the Apostolic See in what pertains to internal government and discipline.  For the exercise of immediate responsibility over the monasteries, Apostolic See entrusts them to the regular superior of the Order, according to the Constitutions, or to the diocesan bishop, according to the norm of law.

          For that reason, as far as the canonical condition of the monasteries is concerned:

a)     Some remain, according to the age-old norm, under the jurisdiction of our Order, and have as their regular superior the Superior General or their respective provincial, who have over the monastery the jurisdiction determined by these Constitutions.

b)     Others, by the Apostolic See’s special decision, are entrusted to the special vigilance of the diocesan bishop, according to the norm of law.


202.  The canonical condition of the individual monasteries, to which reference is made in the preceding number, must be determined in the act of foundation.  For a monastery entrusted to the special vigilance of the bishop according to the norm 615 to pass under the jurisdiction of our Order, the following are necessary:

a)     The deliberative vote of the monastery.

b)     The approval of the diocesan bishop.

c)      The Superior General’s acceptance with the consent of the Definitory.

d)     The authorization of the Apostolic See.

          For a monastery placed under the authority of our Order to be entrusted to the special vigilance of the diocesan bishop, the following is required:            

a) The deliberative vote of the monastery.

b) The approval of the Superior General with the consent of the Definitory.

c) The diocesan bishop’s acceptance.

d) The authorization of the Apostolic See.


203.  The juridical autonomy mentioned in the foregoing numbers, must be accompanied by autonomy of life.  Therefore a monastery must have everything it needs to lead an autonomous life, including enough resources and personnel for a faithful Teresian Carmelite observance and formation and government, so as to give assurances for the vitality of the monastery, its development, and its future needs, according to the norm of the present Constitutions.  This must be kept in mind especially when new foundations are being planned.


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Wow! This is a thread I have been reading bit by bit for days. In dwelling Trinity, I would like to thank you, from the bottom of my heart, for your dear, open, honest and most living letter. I am going to print it and keep it. May God and all the saints and angels be with you as you ascend the mountain to meet your Beloved! I know it must be scary, difficult, painful, exciting and so much more. I have no doubt you will meet Your Master, the love of your life, face to face, and that will be a glorious moment. When that happens, I beg you to please remember us and intercede for us as each one of us travels his or her own road to holiness. As you know, it is not easy and knowing we will have "our own saint" - how special that will be! May God bless you and may your time here be filled with enough graces to assure you of your true home coming. Blessings, peace and grace - Rose

I hate to ask yet another question, but as I was reading/researching, I found a notation that a Habsburg - Archduchess Maria Annunciata of Austria entered a "Theresian Monastery," and became the Abbess. I cannot imagine a Monastery other than a Carmel being named for Saint Teresa. It would have been in Austria or Germany. I am hoping someone can help me. (Also, the use of Abbess - I know - is not customary for Carmelites. It would have been around 1880 or so. (This is from memory so I apologize in advance if I am giving wrong dates or details.) thank you in advance to anybody who might know of this Monastery and where it is, and if indeed she did become a religious.

Thank you,

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I'm not 100% certain, but I am NOT sure that this means she was a religious.


I think it may have been some kind of a secular title.  See here:




Above link says in part:  


The Theresianian Noble Chapter at the Hradschin in Prague (The Theresian Royal and Imperial Ladies Chapter of the Castle of Prague (Äbtissin des k.k. Theresianischen adeligen Damenstifts ob dem Prager Schlosses - Ã„btissin des Prager Hradschin Convents - Äbtissin des Hradschin) (Secular Abbess)
Other versions of the name are: Adelichen Damenstiftes auf dem Prager Hradschin/Theresianische Anstalt für adelige Frauen in Prag/The k.k. Theresianische adelige Damenstift at the Prague Hradschin
The Abbey was founded by Empress Maria Theresia in 1755, from 1766 the Abbess enjoyed princely ecclesiastical rank (fürstliche geistliche würde), only temporal duties and a high income, in 1791 the right to crown the Queens of Bohemia was transferred to her. The position of Princess-Abbess of the Chapter was the second highest non-imperial office after the Chancellor.


(red highlighting my own)



Anyone know any better????

Edited by AnneLine

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Dear AnneLine,

Thank you for your research. I think I understand - this is a way of nobility retraining their property & title. But, I'm still curious about the actual religious aspect of their life. (IF they had one at all!!!) thank you so much for looking into this.


God bless!

Edited by cmaD2006
Removed identifying information per OPs request

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Photos of Discalced Carmelite Nun in Brazil: Madre Tereza Margarida do Coracao de Maria



















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It was really, really helpful! Obviously the Nuns would appear to be of the French lineage - from their habits alone. Would you that is correct? Great help!

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Oh, wait.... there's a thesis handling the history of Mayerling. The genealogy of the nuns is quite complicated. But basically all Austrian Carmelites trace back to one point of origin. In 1590 four nuns from Malagon in Barcelona founded the convent of Genua - the first Theresian foundation outside of Spain. From Genua came the foundation in Rome (1610) and later on in Terni (1618). From Genua and Terni the convent in Wien-Salzgries was founded, which was the origin of the Austrian Carmelites.

So they trace back to Spain, as far as I know.


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